occurring compounds have been, and continue to be, an important source of new leads and of commercially successful products for various industrial sectors, notably pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. The conference, Functional Molecules from Natural Sources, held at Magdalen College, Oxford, in July 2009 set out to highlight current trends, challenges and successes in the exploitation of natural products from microbial, plant and marine sources. Based on the proceedings of this conference, the main themes of this book are modern and emerging perspectives on natural product utilization and improved strategies for natural products exploitation. It provides case studies on important natural product leads (functional molecules) and their enhancement. These take account of new medical applications, and advances in the understanding and manipulation of natural product biosynthesis at the genetic level. Highlights include an authoritative review of the entire field of natural anticancer agents, (with an emphasis on those currently in clinical development).